IN THE EMPIRICIST VIEW, spirituality is rejected entirely. Perhaps the most important European philosopher of modern times, Prussian Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was decisive on the issue of spirituality. Kant almost entirely ignored the German word for spirit – Geist. A forerunner of the scientist sceptics of today, Kant rejected epistemological claims of metaphysical supernaturalism – this meant questions as to the existence of God, soul and in fact anything which can not be resolved by an appeal to possible experience. Kant maintained they lacked any true cognitive foundation. Instead he was much more interested in illuminating objectivity and was concerned with objectively valid principles in scientific and moral judgement.[i]
[i] Steven G. Smith (1988) The Concept of the Spiritual, 26.